价值和历史

“一切的开始是当两个开明的工业家,克里斯托弗·克雷斯皮和他的儿子西尔维奥决定在阿达河的岸边为他们的工人建立一个理想的村庄:愿景中,主人的城堡不仅代表权威,而且还保护着工人和他们的家庭”。

阿达的·克雷斯皮村庄一定是意大利目前存有的工人村中最有趣的案例。它保存完好(特别是城市的布局以及建筑的样式),同时他也是目前世界上这一理念模式保存最完整、完成度最高的案例之一。

阿达的·克雷斯皮村庄是一个理想城市模型:一个有趣、近乎完美的自治城市的缩影:在那里,工人的生活、家庭以及整个社区的建成都置于一个充满秩序和和谐的理想城中——围绕工厂。同时,它可以看做是一个在农村和工业地区的一个小岛。

阿达的·克雷斯皮村庄:梦幻还是现实?无论怎样,它促进了工业文明和社会的发展,其重要性毋庸置疑。

历史

阿达的·克雷斯皮地区包括工厂和村庄在内的公司小镇在意大利第一次工业化时期,即19世纪晚期由克雷斯皮家族建造(棉纺织制造商)。这是一个伟大的时代,由开明的实业家、业主和慈善家构成,他们受到社会主义的启发,希望满足工人的需求,照顾他们在工厂内外的生活。他们的想法是给所有的工人一个带菜园的小木屋,并提供给他们生活所必需的所有服务设施:教堂,学校,医院,社区中心,剧院,公共澡堂。该公司于1878年在伦巴第河畔的阿达的河岸成立,其专制的运作理念同其他许多公司一样,在20世纪末,宣告失败并且破产,并随后进行转型。如今,这个村庄延续一个原真性的社区,这里面大部分都是最初的工人的后代。此外,工厂一直运作到2004年,其功能一直保持不变:棉花纺织生产。

景观

阿达的·克雷斯皮地区的周边环境很独特:这个村庄处于一个三角形的低地,在两条河流的交汇点,像摇篮一样。在北边地势差异另一个是与北方的地面水平的差异,叫做“Fossato Bergamasco”。两条交互的河叫做:阿达和布伦博河,它们形成了一个叫做“Bergamasca”的孤岛(这个村庄位于孤岛的尽头)。Fossato Bergamasco曾经是米兰公国与威尼斯共和国之间的边界。地理上的隔离也因村庄与外界的联系而更加突出。如今,这些地理特征所携带的信息,帮助我们理解为什么Crespi d'Adda可以能有别于周围混乱的环境而保持如此独特的、隐忍的特征。

城市布局

村庄的城市布局独具一格:工厂坐落在河边,紧挨着克雷斯皮家族的城堡。工人们的房子,受到英国联排房屋的启发,在工厂东边排列整齐,在工厂的南边则分布一群迷人的别墅,供职员和董事们使用。医生和牧师的房子在山上俯视着整个村庄,教堂和学校则并排面对着工厂。工厂的存在和重要性通过高耸的烟囱和厂间突出,它们在大街上重复着韵律线性排列着。街道本身也是工人们生活的隐喻,它联系着工厂和村庄,而南边的端头则是墓地。

建筑

阿达的·克雷斯皮有各种各样的建筑风格,从古典主义到浪漫主义。城堡复制了中世纪风格,而教堂则复制了文艺复兴圣玛丽亚教堂的风格。圣玛丽亚教堂位于Busto Arsizio,是克雷斯皮家族出生的地方。其他的建筑都是新中世纪风格的,由珍贵的砖饰点缀和锻造的铁饰,体现了伦巴第地区典型的浪费主义建筑风格。工厂本身就是新中世纪风格,在主入口处这种风格最明显。墓地有着异国情调和折衷风格,它不仅是一个纪念物,而且其中位于中心位置的克雷斯皮家族的家庙—— 一个由木头和水泥制成的塔状物,周边散漫着工人的十字架,仿佛在拥抱他们。

主角

CRISTOFORO BENIGNO CRESPI:
«Born in 1833, he was the first son of Antonio Crespi, descending from a family of textile producers from Busto Arsizio. Originally he helped his father with the trading of dyed fabrics, but then founded with his family the cotton mills of Vaprio, Vigevano e Ghemme. In 1878 he founded the factory in Crespi d'Adda, introducing the most modern spinning, weaving and finishing processes.»

«In 1884 he moved to Milan, in his house in Borgonuovo street, where he opened the headquarters of his company. He also kept a vast and widely admired collection of paintings.»

«In 1904 he built the hydro-electric power station of Trezzo sull'Adda. He was awarded several honours, which included "Cavaliere del Lavoro" and "Commendatore della Corona d'Italia". He died in Milan in 1920.»


SILVIO BENIGNO CRESPI:
«Son of Cristoforo, he was born in Milan in 1868. He got his degree in law at the age of 21 and spent some years in England in order to follow the developments of cotton production. In 1889 he started working in his father's factory where he became director.»

«With a tenacious and tireless character, he occupied himself with numerous activities, ranging from industrial to the political and financial sectors. He published and authored a study on preventing the injuries at work. He was the first president of the Cotton Producers association and member of Consiglio Superiore dell'Industria e del Commercio. He was president of Banca Commerciale Italiana and of the Italian Automobile Club.»

«He was deputy and senator for the Catholic Liberals and within the Parliament he promoted industry and commerce, with a special concern for workers conditions. He was appointed Ministry Plenipotentiary at the end of the First World War. He died in Cadorago in 1944.»

a cura di:   CRESPI CULTURA Associazione Culturale Villaggio Crespi   PI 02808360164   © 2018
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